Skeletal Skepticism

“We place no reliance on virgin or pidgeon,
our method is science our aim is religion.”
-Aleister Crowley 666

Current ideas about evolution tend to lead to the belief that if a biological structure exists then it exists in its current form because that is its optimum arrangement selected out by the blind mechanism of Natural Selection.

If we discard the idea that consciousness is an epiphenomenon of matter and imagine that it has always participated in the evolutionary process then we might start to think about the organism as it currently exists as an exploratory system probing possibility.
Getting down to the bare bones of the issue examining  the ecosystem and archaeological record might allow us to perceive patterns and predict useful trajectories for exploration.

skull-scrying

Ancestors and relatives

Looking at a selection of skulls showing previous human forms as well as the skulls of our primate relatives a pattern can be seen the face reduces in size while flattening also increasing in fine definition and the brain enlarges, the Starchild skull appears to fit a future projection fairly well.

elves

The Starchild Skull: Alien or Elfin?

In the case of the Starchild we only have an incomplete skull to examine but from this it is possible to speculate about other likely anatomical differences.

foramens

The foramen magnum (the opening where the spinal cord enters/exits the skull) of the Starchild skull appears to occupy a more central position than in a more typical human skull, although this is not immediately apparent as a result of the Starchild’s unusual features. Again this fits  a projected pattern, looking at a selection of skulls the position of the foramen magnum seems to depend to a large extent on gait and degree of bipedalism and so also habitual posture.

star-cheek

Human left Starchild right, some damage has occurred to the Starchild and because of the image angle due to the incline at the rear of the Starchild skull the centrality of the foramen magnum is not immediately apparent. The red highlights differences in cheekbone (zygomatic arch) sizes.

The large brain of the Starchild skull would require a well developed respiratory system with a large lung capacity, here things become more speculative, it is possible that some of the changes involved in the Starchild’s respiratory system involve microstructural  changes such as more developed alveoli with increased surface area, since FoxP2 appears to be involved in alveolar development this seems likely as the Starchild’s FoxP2 gene differs from human.

Chimpanzees have more conical rib cages than humans the upper portion being narrower it’s possible this trend might have continued in the Starchild possibly resulting in a somewhat broad-shouldered appearance. Posture also influences lung function,  scoliosis decreases compliance of the chest wall and lung in severe cases pulmonary hypertension and respiratory failure may develop. In children with scoliosis the rib cage typically narrows at around the 2nd 3rd and 4th thoracic vertebra. Adolescents with scoliosis often have narrower rib cages.

ribs

In addition to their obvious respiratory function the lungs are also involved in detoxifying serotonin (inflammatory and inhibitor of respiration) removing it from circulation they are also a source of the morphogenetic natriuretic peptides  (heart hormones) that are anti-inflammatory and promote mitochondrial biogenesis raising the organism’s energy level.

The evidence that evolution proceeds in a meaningful way building complexity and consciousness suggests that entropy is illusory, life complexifies and develops with time, though clearly the path is not one going directly upwards the Starchild skull may be around 900 years old and other skulls with enlarged cranial capacities exist seemingly more developed than current humans either these skulls were early biological pioneers or human civilisation has gone through a marked degree of degeneration in our relatively recent past.

Tenebrous Time

“Eternity is in love with the productions of time.”
-William Blake

Time seems to be a fundamentally creative energy something that is much more significant than the merely passive duration it is usually thought to be.
Without time there can be no evolution, no growth,  no experience.

Nikolai Kozyrev (1908-1983) was a Russian astrophysicist whose thinking on time made it an actual creative participant in the Kosmos. Kozyrev was unconvinced by the thermonuclear model of Stars, examining data on the mass, luminosity,  and radius, of Sun and stars and considering the age of the Earth and the Sun’s likely intensity over this span Kozyrev concluded that the Sun and stars could not be thermonuclear fireballs. Kozyrev suggested that the Sun and stars developed energy from a combination of processes involving an interaction with the flow of time producing energy and structure.

Kozyrev’s thinking about time energy caused him to suggest that active lunar volcanism was likely, previously it was assumed that any volcanic activity on the moon could only have taken place billions of years ago. Kozyrev observed volcanic activity in the Alphonsus crater of the moon (Kozyrev 1959), since then more recent lunar volcanism has been confirmed  (Braden et al. 2014).

The energy of time interacts with all processes Stars, planets, moons and living organisms, throughout nature the golden spiral is found, the irrational number phi, its spiral geometry is found in shells, the forms of horns and antlers the growth patterns of plants and animals, everywhere. Kozyrev felt this spiral energy was the pattern of time’s flow. The spiral is not only the wake of time but also in some sense acts as a receiver and intensifier of time’s flow. Spirals by their nature  involve asymmetry, chirality  (handedness sinister/dexter) generally the heart sits predominantly on the left side of the body, Kozyrev believed that this asymmetry was produced by the pattern of time’s flow. The heart itself makes use of spiral geometry in both form and function its pumping action involves torsional twisting of reciprocating counter rotating spirals.

2016-11-13-19-29-35

Diffusion tensor images of the helical heart. Image credit, Teh et al. 2016.

This asymmetry should manifest at multiple scales, so Kozyrev suggested that as a result of Time flow planets would not be perfect spheres but have a somewhat cardioid (resembling a heart) form with a slight flattening at one pole and a slight extension at the other, in the case of the Earth the north polar basin contrasts with the continent of Antarctica further the majority of land mass appears to be in the northern hemisphere (Levich 1996).

A similar asymmetry has been found on Mars, the Mars orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) team discovered “the striking difference” in elevation between northern and southern hemispheres, the South Pole lying about 6km higher than the north pole further the planet’s centre of mass is 3 km north of its geometric centre  (Rokityansky 2012).
Kozyrev suggested that the direction of the spiral mattered, a counterclockwise spiral should add energy to the system Kozyrev refered to this as left-handed spin however from another perspective it could be described as right-handed, if you take your right hand with the thumb pointing up and look at it from above the fingers curl to the left in a counterclockwise spiral.

Given the fundamental nature of this time energy Kozyrev realised it might be measurable though doing so would require perseverance and sensitivity.

Kozyrev carried out a variety of experiments involving gyroscopes, asymmetric balances and pendulums. Any irreversible  process appears to involve the energy of time, Kozyrev found that processes such as temperature changes for example cooling of a previously heated body caused the torsion balance to rotate towards that body while a body being heated deflected the pointer. Other processes affected the torsion balance including salt dissolving, body compression or stretching, phase transitions and changes in human consciousness especially meaningful emotional shifts. For example when reading Faust Kozyrev noticed a torsion balance he had set up move towards him on reaching a significant part of the story.

When experimenting with gyroscopes suspended  from weighted balances Kozyrev found weight variations appeared if vibrations were introduced into the system further the weight variation depended on rotation direction and speed as well as from which end of the balance the vibration was introduced. If vibration was introduced from the gyroscope end while the gyroscope was rotating anticlockwise the gyroscope appeared to lighten, if vibration was introduced at the weighted balance end the anticlockwise rotating gyroscope appeared to increase in weight, suggesting that there is a fundamental difference between causes and effects (Kozyrev 1971).

In addition to the torsion balance electrical resistors and galvanometers also showed changes in response to processes like acetone evaporation and sugar dissolving in water (Levich 1996).

Kozyrev believed  he demonstrated a rarefaction of time flow around causes and an increase in time flow density around effects. These effects of time energy were always small and difficult to  measure and skepticism is understandable if the balance is sensitive could it not be subject to subtle shifts in air flow and convection? In some cases this might be so however Kozyrev also tested a variety of materials as sorts of screen and materials that would inhibit air flow, glass and cardboard  still seemed to cause responses from a torsion balance, aluminium appeared to somehow reflect the time flow so little response was measured from the torsion balance.

Different parts of a cut or damaged organism produced differing effects on a torsion balance the cut end of a plant stem would deflect the balance while the apical region would strongly attract the balance.

Exhaustive cycles of experiments in different locations appeared to show that  geographic latitude influenced result, as did season winter seemed to produce greater effects from the torsion balance, in summer it could be difficult to produce any result at all.

Radioactive decay is generally considered random on the scale of atoms  but constant at larger scales however evidence exists for periodic variation in rates of nuclear decay with faster decay rates occurring  in winter slower in summer (Javorsek et al. 2010 and Jenkins et al. 2012). Solar flares seem to be capable of influencing nuclear decay rates with the decline in decay rate starting over a day before the flare itself (Jenkins and Fischbach 2009).

These effects from the sun are difficult to understood and explain at least with the conventional model. Further evidence suggests an approximately 12 year cycle (Sturrock et al. 2011) in nuclear decay rate variation possibly linked to the 11 year solar cycle or perhaps some other influence, Jupiter completes one solar orbit in a little under 12 years?
Kozyrev found at other odd periods anomalous results suggesting other processes impossible to control for influencing local time flow.

Kozyrev believed that the energy of time was a sort of angular momentum (karma?), explaining the prevalence of spirals. Kozyrev’s work suggests that the time flow experienced by a specific subject both influences its environment and is influenced by the overall Kosmic time flow.

Time here appears as fundamentally negentropic it generates life, equilibrium states become highly unlikely as the energy of time continually flows into all systems. So why is there death if time is continually contributing creative energy? The energy of time is subtle and though always contributing energy if other energy flows dissipate the energy of time is not enough to reinvigorate them at least not immediately. Organisms may experience death and decay but like the nigredo of the Alchemists this leads to new life springing forth from death, continual growth is the rule.

thoth-star

“Every man and every woman is a star.” -666

Kozyrev’s work suggest possibilities that are nothing short of bloody Magick (if you  dislike the term Magick you could replace it with something like Chrono-astro-bio-meteorology). It might seem strange to think about time as an energy interacting with and influenced by other processes but if we think about some weather phenomena as analogies this might help.

Processes like tornadoes and hurricanes are still incompletely understood but some of the forces thought to be involved in their formation are reasonable.

Tornadoes form when supercells (towering thunderstorms) are present, warm moisture carrying air rises, condensation releases heat (energy) driving up drafts, more condensation results in more powerful up drafts,  moisture present at the base can fuel the process, downdrafts fueled by rain intensify things and a vortex can develop the spinning air is drawn upwards the lower part may tighten with increasing wind speed forming a tornado. If temperature differences even out or moisture drys up then the tornado dissipates.

Hurricanes form over warm waters from developing low pressure systems, thunderstorms gather strength coalescing over warm waters rotating around each other  feeding off the warm moist air, generally an eye forms when wind speeds reach around 70mph, the eye is the calm empty centre and area of lowest pressure surrounded by the eye-wall where the strongest winds occur. Cooler ocean water and friction from land may weaken the hurricane.

The rotation results from interactions between a variety of energy gradients including pressure and temperature, as well as the Earth’s rotation.
In the northern hemisphere both tornadoes and hurricanes tend to rotate counterclockwise as a result of the Coriolis effect an inertial force.

These descriptions are incomplete and it seems likely that other processes involving both terrestrial and solar electromagnetic processes are involved in tornado and hurricane formation.

With both tornadoes and hurricanes some unusual reports sometimes occur for example cases of tornadoes driving corn stalks through truck radiators the metal appearing to have been pierced with ease, or storms that tear through parking lots leaving some cars overturned others strangely  untouched though in close proximity or sometimes depositing cars on fences or walls otherwise undamaged. Reports of unusual luminous electric phenomena also occur.

whirlgal

Whirlpool Galaxy image credit: NASA/ESA

“A man who is doing his True Will has the inertia of the Universe to assist him.”
-666

Dust devils miniature tornadoes with winds of up to 60mph swirling around a hot column of rising air, display unexpectedly large electric fields often in excess of 4000 and sometimes over 10,000 volts per metre also generating magnetic fields.

If we think of time as a flow of energy then the past could be considered analogous to a high pressure (settled) weather system and the future would be like a low pressure (unsettled) system.

For more on Kozyrev see David Wilcock’s  The Hidden Science and Lost Civilizations: the Source field investigations (2012), and Joseph Farrell’s The Philosopher’s Stone: Alchemy and the Secret Research for Exotic Matter (2009).

Abyssal Aberrations

“If a thing loves it is infinite.”
-William Blake
“The thunderbolt steers the universe.”
-Heraclitus

If we assume that at least to some degree the Chakra system of yogic esoteric anatomy describes an energetic reality then this may be a system open to change, development and innovation, not so completely crystallised as might be thought. Various subtle anatomic models exist but currently the most popular one involves seven major Chakras from the base of the spine to the Crown of the head situated along the central sushumna nadi (nerve), some tantric traditions include multiple chakras below muladhara and above/within sahasrara as well as other subtle centres throughout the body.

chakras_map-svg

From top to bottom: 1. Sahasrara Crown. 2.Ajna Brow. 3. Vishuddha Throat. 4. Anahata Heart. 5. Manipura Solar plexus. 6. Swadhisthana, sacral. 7. Muladhara, Root.

The chakras could be thought of as subtle psycho-energetic fields associated with various structures, usually neuro-endocrine. Chakra can mean wheel or whirlpool.

The seven usually described are from top to bottom Sahasrara at the Crown of the head associated with the Pineal gland, Ajna at the brow / 3rd eye point, associated with the pituitary, Vishuddha the throat chakra associated with the thyroid gland, Anahata the heart chakra, Manipura at the solar plexus associated with the digestive organs, Swadhisthana the sacral chakra associated with the sex organs and gonads, and Muladhara the root chakra associated with the organs of elimination.

The chakras are centres of energetic transformation (metabolism) the more active a chakra is the more its particular metabolic mode will influence the activity of the total system shifting the organism’s total psycho-energetic inertia.

For example someone with highly active Vishuddha and Swadhisthana chakras might be; a perverted poet with ribald rhymes and luridly lewd lines, deviant degenerate and distinguished, a canny cunning linguist.

The activity of one chakra will tend to activate others especially those immediately above and below, other links also exist.

If the physical anatomy of the Elf differs from human then surely so to might the energetic anatomy.

elf-chakras

Elven Energy

 

Indra is the chief God of the Rig Veda, a sky god  of storms and war, he is known as the wielder of the Vajra (thunderbolt) which he uses to slay Vritra the serpent/dragon and personification of drought who withholds the waters.

Vrtra / Vritra can mean foe, restrainer, noise and enveloper.

Indra’s lover is Shachi goddess of wrath and jealousy.

Indra as a word might mean possessing drops (of rain), indu – a drop/ Soma/ moon. -ra – possessing/ loving / desire.

Indra can refer to the right pupil, Indrani the left.

The word Indriya “of Indra” can refer to the five Senses and in Buddhism 5 spiritual faculties; confidence, endurance, awareness, focus, and insight.

chakra-table

This table is incomplete and at least to some degree inaccurate. The association of the Vampire bat with Indrajala is a sanguine secret of which it would be inappropriate to say too much at this point in time.

Indrajala, Indra’s Net in Buddhism is used to illustrate the concepts of interrelation and interpenetration.

It is said that in Indra’s empyrean high above mount Meru hangs a wondrous web spun with cunning artifice in accordance with Indra’s extravagant taste the net is infinite in extent and in each nexus of the net nests a jewel glittering like a star so cleverly cut that it reflects all other jewels in the net looking closer still each reflected jewel reflects all others a vision vanishing into vastness infinite and incommensurable (Malhotra 2014, Avatmasaka Sutra, I reworded it a little).

The first mentions of Indra’s net occur in the Atharva Veda:
“vast indeed is the tactical net of great Indra, mighty of action and tempestuous of great speed. By that net, O Indra, pounce upon all the enemies so that none of the enemies may escape arrest and punishment.” AV 8.8.6.

“This great world is the power net of mighty Indra, greater than the great. By that Indra net of boundless reach, I hold all those enemies with the dark cover of vision, mind, and senses.” AV 8.8.8.

The word Indrajala can also mean illusion, stratagem, deceit, trickery and Magick.

The complexity and intricately interwoven nature of Life makes it highly unlikely that anyone can ever possess truly complete knowledge of anything, the dynamic nature of reality makes it highly unlikely that anything like a final authoritative revelation can exist and any claim to such is likely fatal fanaticism that replaces sensitive engagement with life with desiccating dogma.

The complex and often contradictory narratives of polytheistic myth encourage a plurality of perspectives, similar attitudes can be found in the philosophy of Tao and in the central Jain teaching of Anekantavada (many-sidedness) the ability to consider multiple perspectives.

Indra delights in drinking Soma a mysterious elixir of immortality prepared by extracting the juice of an unknown plant no consensus on the identity of Soma exists, the word itself has a range of meanings including extract, distill and heaven as well as being associated with the moon, it is thought to be derived from an Indo-European root *sav- “to press”.
Indra is said to have drunk rivers of soma prior to his confrontation with Vritra to gain the necessary strength to overcome this foe. It is through Soma that Indra conquers all foes.

Soma is mentioned as existing in all plants as well as being the greatest of herbs and Lord of plants. The Rig Veda describes Soma as growing near water and as flowing with a milky juice that is extracted through crushing it. Soma is worshiped in the central point of heaven, not only does it grow by water it’s juice flows to a reservoir and then to a river (RV 9.21).

Soma is continually described in multiple hymns as flowing like a river as well as being the ocean into which rivers flow.
Drinking Soma makes a man into a rishi (sage/seer), Soma makes us “better than we are” (RV9.4).

Blood Bender

Dutifully dug the Devil’s ditches,
In a clown’s cloak with witch’s stitches.
Bound with a burst of blood and a fleck of flesh,
Mournfully mazed in moon mesh.
Withered wings quiver and quicken,
Tethered and twisting in lunar linen.
With reason rendered wretch,
Will stained stigmata stretch?
And a shade’s shroud be shed,
From doomed and damned and dead?
And Faerie fabric of Seelie silk,
Be spun from molten milk
Of combusting crown decompressed,
Alembicated alizarin Alkahest?

References

Braden, S.E., Stopar, J.D., Robinson, M.S., Lawrence, S.J., Van Der Bogert, C.H. and Hiesinger, H., 2014. Evidence for basaltic volcanism on the Moon within the past 100 million years. Nature Geoscience, 7(11), pp.787-791.

Frawley, D, 2000. Gods, Sages and Kings: Vedic Secrets of Ancient Civilisation, Lotus Press.

Farrell, J.P., 2009. The Philosopher’s Stone: Alchemy and the Secret Research for Exotic Matter. Feral House.

Javorsek, D., Sturrock, P.A., Lasenby, R.N., Lasenby, A.N., Buncher, J.B., Fischbach, E., Gruenwald, J.T., Hoft, A.W., Horan, T.J., Jenkins, J.H. and Kerford, J.L., 2010. Power spectrum analyses of nuclear decay rates.Astroparticle Physics, 34(3), pp.173-178.

Jenkins, J.H., Herminghuysen, K.R., Blue, T.E., Fischbach, E., Javorsek, D., Kauffman, A.C., Mundy, D.W., Sturrock, P.A. and Talnagi, J.W., 2012. Additional experimental evidence for a solar influence on nuclear decay rates.Astroparticle Physics, 37, pp.81-88.

Jenkins, J.H. and Fischbach, E., 2009. Perturbation of nuclear decay rates during the solar flare of 2006 December 13. Astroparticle Physics,31(6), pp.407-411.

Kozyrev, N.A., 1959. Volcanic activity on the Moon. International Geology Review, 1(10), pp.40-44.

Kozyrev, N.A., 1971. On the possibility of experimental investigation of the properties of time. Time in science and philosophy, pp.111-132.

Levich, A.P. ed., 1996. On the Way to Understanding the Time Phenomenon: The Constructions of Time in Natural Science (Part II) (Vol. 39). World Scientific.

Malhotra, R., 2014. Indra’s Net: Defending Hinduism’s philosophical unity. HarperCollins Publishers India.

Rokityansky, I.I., 2012. North-South asymmetry of planets as effect of Kozyrev’s causal asymmetrical mechanics. Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica Hungarica, 47(1), pp.101-116.

Sturrock, P.A., Fischbach, E. and Jenkins, J.H., 2011. Further evidence suggestive of a solar influence on nuclear decay rates. Solar Physics,272(1), pp.1-10.

Teh, I., McClymont, D., Burton, R.A., Maguire, M.L., Whittington, H.J., Lygate, C.A., Kohl, P. and Schneider, J.E., 2016. Resolving fine cardiac structures in rats with high-resolution diffusion tensor imaging. Scientific Reports, 6.

Wilcock, D., 2012.  The Hidden Science and Lost Civilizations: the Source field investigations. Penguin.

Sanskrit dictionary

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Energy, Evolution and eventually even Effervescent Elves

Each stage of evolutionary history has its characteristic metabolic chemistry. By protecting and promoting mitochondrial respiration we are contributing to our own evolution.”
–Ray Peat

Part 1: Mojo and Mitochondria.

Mitochondria are the organelles responsible for energy production in the cell, it is within the mitochondria where food, in the form of carbohydrates, fats and protein, is oxidised to produce energy. The metabolism of glucose involves a step that happens outside of the mitochondria and without the need for oxygen, glycolysis which converts glucose to pyruvate, pyruvate then enters the mitochondria, where it is converted to acetyl-CoA which then enters the citric acid (Krebs/TCA) cycle where it is oxidised producing carbon dioxide, and water, NADH, enters the electron transport chain and is oxidized to NAD+, in healthy cells there is a high ratio of NAD+ to NADH,  increased NADH is found in multiple diseases including diabetes and cancer. The citric acid cycle is the key pathway that is common to carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. For each molecule of glucose  2 ATP are produced during glycolysis, and around 30 molecules of ATP from the mitochondrial phases, in theory more ATP could be produced but some degree of uncoupling usually occurs. If there is a lack of oxygen or something inhibits mitochondria pyruvate will be fermented to lactate.

Mitochondria in addition to being the site of energy production have other roles, they are involved in hormone production and response, being the site where cholesterol is converted into protective steroid hormones such as pregnenolone, progesterone and DHEA. Mitochondria play roles in cell identity and differentiation. They can vary in size and shape from simple rod and elliptical structures to complex extensive interconnected networks in cells with high energy demands such as muscle cells of the heart and diaphragm. These variations in size, shape and location are all responsive to changes in demands placed on their cells. Their activity is involved in generating a formative field.

The extensive mitochondrial networks result from an increase in mitochondrial fusion, simpler mitochondrial structures from fission processes. A balance between fusion and fission is essential to cell function, imbalances in either direction can cause problems. Generally fission (fragmentation) of mitochondria results in a decrease in oxidative metabolism, increased fission is associated with cell division, dedifferentiation, apoptosis, lowered cytochrome oxidase (a fundamental respiratory enzyme), increased glycolysis, and a range of diseases including diabetes, Huntington’s, and cancer. Fission is increased by high glucose levels, perhaps as it allows for increased glycolysis and pyruvate uptake if sustained it seems likely to encourage the fermentation of pyruvate into lactate. Glucose deprivation enhances mitochondrial fusion.

 

neurons

Images showing mitochondrial networks in neurons from normal mice and mice used to model Huntington’s (transgenic BACHD): healthy evenly distributed mitochondria along dendritic branches in WT neurons, in BACHD neurons mitochondria are fragmented and rarefied, with deformed dendrites and less branching (Shirendeb et al.2012).

Increased Mitochondrial fusion is associated with increased oxidative respiration, increased cytochrome oxidase, increased cell differentiation and specialisation. Denervation and disuse of tissues increases fission, use increases mitochondrial fusion (Iqbal et al. 2013).

Mitochondrial volume and activity decrease with aging, (Ratel et al. 2008). Mammals have more mitochondria than reptiles as well as more active mitochondria, with these mitochondria taking up a greater volume of their cells, some mammals having a sixfold greater oxidative capacity than reptiles (Else and Hulbert 1981).

Part 2: Accelerated Adaptation.

“A proposed law of aromorphosis: that the retardation of the flow of energy in living systems tends toward a maximum; in animals this would imply a trend toward larger-brained, longer lived and probably warmer animals, having a higher energy charge.”
–Ray Peat

Human Accelerated Regions (HARs) are segments of the human genome that are conserved extensively within vertebrate evolution but are strikingly different in humans (even when compared to chimpanzees). They were identified by Katherine Pollard and other researchers, 202 HARs were identified with 49 of them being considered highly significant. They are numbered according to their degree of difference from chimpanzee equivalents, HAR1 being the most different (Pollard et al. 2006). Their striking degree of difference suggests that they have undergone a particularly rapid evolution, suggesting that conventional ideas about evolution as a slow mechanical process may need to be reconsidered.

HAR20 codes for the protein peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1-alpha (PGC-1A), this makes it unusual among the human accelerated regions (HARs) as most of the others are non-coding, they do not encode proteins, non-coding DNA has previously been described as junk DNA, it makes up 98.5% of the human genome.
PGC-1A both induces mitochondrial biogenesis (increasing mitochondrial volume, and creating new mitochondria), and modulates the composition and function of individual mitochondria.

PGC-1A was originally discovered in brown fat cells, brown fat contains more mitochondria than white fat, increased levels of BAT (brown adipose tissue) are found in children. PGC-1A can increase mitochondria in white adipose tissue converting it to brown or beige (intermediate between white and brown). Exposure to cold can increase PGC-1A.
PGC-1A increases mitochondrial mass and oxygen consumption, lowered mitochondrial function is involved in multiple diseases some of these may involve impaired PGC-1A including Huntington’s, Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

PGC-1A can be increased by muscular activity especially endurance activity. PGC-1A both causes the conversion of type 2 fast white glycolytic fibres to type 1 slow red oxidative fibres, and is expressed at higher levels by type1 red oxidative fibres with increased mitochondrial density, extensive capillary supply and increased nerve supply (Lin et al. 2002). Type 1 fibres are those fibres that are involved in maintaining body posture as their constant activity requires intense respiratory support, type 2 fibres are capable of exerting more explosive force but they lack the fine motor control of type 1. An increased ratio of type 1 to type 2 fibres is present in humans compared to our primate relatives.

More on muscle and metabolism here:
Muscle, Metabolism, Mitochondria, and Metamorphic Mutation Magick

PGC-1A increases oxidative metabolism but lowers reactive oxygen species production (ROS) inducing the expression of ROS lowering enzymes (Austin and St. Pierre 2012).
PGC-1A increases UCP1 and mitochondrial uncoupling, uncoupling is an incompletely understood phenomenon where oxidative metabolism and oxygen consumption is uncoupled from ATP production, it is sometimes considered a wasteful process but it appears to be beneficial. One of the main sites of uncoupled respiration is brown fat where it acts to increase heat production, however heat production might not be it’s main function as often a significant amount of respiratory energy (in rats 20-25%) goes into uncoupling (Brand 2000). Uncoupling may also increase longevity, mice with the highest metabolism, most uncoupling had 17% higher oxygen consumption used 30% more energy and lived 36% longer than mice with the lowest metabolism (Speakman et al. 2004). Uncoupled mitochondria produce increased carbon dioxide as a result of their increased oxygen consumption.

Uncoupling is neuroprotective, protecting against excitotoxicity and reducing damage in the cortex by around 50% after traumatic brain injury (Maragos and Korde 2004).
Predictably mammals have more mitochondrial uncoupling than reptiles (Akhmerov 1986).

Uncoupling is associated with increased mitochondrial fusion ( Golic et al. 2014). PGC-1A promotes the expression of Mfn2 a protein involved in mitochondrial fusion.
Uncoupling increases mitochondrial oxygen consumption and lowers ROS, I think this supports the idea that oxidative metabolism is in some sense like a whirlwind, potentially self-intensifying. An increased metabolism coheres the respiratory apparatus, electrons (energy) travels through it without escaping to react inappropriately as might happen when less intense producing ROS. Alternatively the intense metabolism could be likened to a fierce flame burning bright without smoke, a less intense metabolism would be like a faint flame forming filthy fumes.

The increased carbon dioxide produced by uncoupled mitochondria dilates blood vessels assisting in bringing increased blood flow and oxygen, generally acts to protect proteins from oxidation and increase the coherence of the organism (Ray Peat has written extensively on the biology of carbon dioxide, there are a couple of articles on this site also).

The natriuretic peptides released by the heart when it is stretched by increased blood flow act in part by increasing PGC-1A (Engeli et al. 2012).

More on the natriuretic peptides here:
Heart Hormones Inversions and Immortality

Deletion of PGC-1A  results in vascular aging and atherosclerosis as well as decreasing telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), telomere shortening is involved in DNA damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, multiple diseases and general aging. TERT maintains telomere length, telomeres are the regions at the ends of chromosomes that protect the chromosome from deterioration or fusing with neighbouring chromosomes. Telomeres shorten during cell division. PGC-1A increases TERT, restoring telomere length ( Xiong et al. 2015). *BANG* What was that sound? Oh I think that was the final nail in the coffin of the Hayflick limit.

Low PGC-1A appears to be involved in multiple neurodegenerative diseases, including Diabetes, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, Huntington’s and ALS, increasing PGC-1A appears to be protective and therapeutic against neurodegeneration, PGC-1A increases neuronal mitochondrial biogenesis, and nerve tissue like all highly metabolic tissues usually produces high levels of PGC-1A, thought, perception, intelligence and sensitivity are all dependent on energy.

As mentioned earlier most of the human genome consists of noncoding DNA, less than 2% encodes proteins, the majority of the Human Accelerated Regions (HARs) are noncoding DNA which is transcribed into non-coding RNA, clearly the “junk DNA” has purpose.
HAR1 is the most accelerated region, in humans it differs from the chimpanzee equivalent by 18 substitutions. The chimpanzee differs from the chicken equivalent by only 2 out of 118 bases (Pollard et al. 2006).

 

In humans the RNA produced from HAR1 assumes a clover leaf like formation, in chimps a simpler hairpin like structure, the chimp and human HAR1 also have differing electro-phoretic mobility (Beniaminov et al. 2008).
Exactly how HAR1 functions is unknown, it is expressed in developing human and primate brains, with its expression pattern matching that of the extracellular matrix glycoprotein Reelin. Both HAR1 and Reelin are expressed primarily by Cajal-Retzius cells during development. HAR1 is also expressed in the testes and ovaries.

Reelin’s primary function appears to be in regulating the development of the cortex of the brain, guiding neuronal cell migration and positioning. Modulating synaptic plasticity and stimulating dendrite development. Decreased Reelin is implicated in schizophrenia, autism, Alzheimer’s, and temporal lobe epilepsy. A total lack of reelin results in the condition of lissencephaly, a smooth brain completely lacking the normal extensive gyrification (the cortical convolutions) of the human brain, resulting in profound cognitive impairment. Lissencephaly often occurs with hypotonia and a lack of unsupported sitting.
As evolution advances and the cortex becomes more complex Reelin expression goes up with human brains expressing the most. In mammals the cortex develops from inside to out producing a multilayer cortex, in reptiles the cortex develops outside to inside producing a single layer cortex (Molnar 2007).

Reelin appears to structure the space for cortical growth, supplementing mice with Reelin enhanced cognitive abilities, synaptic plasticity and dendritic spine density (Rogers et al. 2011). Reelin can also be increased through T3 the active thyroid hormone (Sui et al. 2010).
Reelin’s role as a morphogenic regulator is supported by decreased Reelin expression in cancer, with lowered reelin promoting the migration and invasion of cancer into surrounding tissues (Walter and Goggins 2008). Heme-oxygenase-1 a stress inducible protein responsible for the breakdown of heme, producing carbon monoxide and bile pigments, Carbon monoxide is a respiratory toxin and increased heme-oxygenase damages mitochondria and reduces reelin content of the brain, producing schizophrenia like symptoms, heme-oxygenase is also involved in cancer (Song et al. 2012).
Human Accelerated Regions, especially the top five show a strong bias for adenine and thymine substitution to guanine and cytosine suggestive of a directionality, a similar substitution of adenine and thymine for guanine and cytosine has been found in mitochondrial DNA to correlate with increased longevity (Lehmann et al. 2008).

I think the Human Accelerated Regions are highly suggestive that Lamarck was correct acquired characteristics can be inherited, meaning evolution is not some blind mechanical process that acts upon insensate dead matter, that it is essentially a living sensitive capacity of life. There is evidence that this is the case, Barbara McClintock experimenting with maize plants found that when the plants chromosomal ends (telomeres) were damaged, the cell appeared to be able to sense the damage and bring together the ruptured ends of chromosomes. If only a single (rather than a pair) chromosomal end is damaged repair is made more difficult, McClintock found that the cell would make use of mobile genetic elements that could repair the damage and restructure the genome at various levels. This suggests that the genome is not some inert structure mutating randomly, but capable of at least some degree of sensitivity adapting to challenges in a coherent non-random way (McClintock 1983).

John Cairns studying E.coli that were unable to metabolize lactose, found they were able when grown in media in which lactose was the only source of food to generate the necessary mutation to metabolize the lactose and survive. The rate of evolution was orders of magnitude higher than random chance would allow (Cairns and Foster 1991).

Part 3: Even Effervescent Elves.

“If we optimize the known factors which improve energy production (red light, short-chain and medium-chain saturated fats, and pregnenolone, for example), to the extent that our metabolism resembles that of a ten year old child, I don’t think there is any reason to suppose that we wouldn’t have the regenerative and healing abilities that are common at that age. I suspect that both brain growth and remodeling might proceed indefinitely.”
–Ray Peat

I’ve written about the starchild skull previously:
Astral Aspiration: aromorphic evolution, a third perspective on the Starchild Skull

The Starchild may represent an early example of some of the evolutionary potential that is available to humans if we can reorient ourselves to a more sensitive understanding of the nature and possibilities of Life.

starx

Starchild Skull x-ray

Our biology (biopsychology) is far more mutable and plastic than the cult of genetic determinism supposes. This has been realised by multiple cultures and subcultures, the various spiritual systems at their core are attempts to promote our highest possibilities. Of course corruption co-option and confusion have occurred over time with some developing into authoritarian control systems that have stifled creativity, imagination and evolution producing sick psychic mono-cultures. Even then the core has usually remained intact.

 

peru

Elongated skull from Paracas Peru. Brien Foerster has some interesting videos of similar skulls on youtube.

The elongated skulls found worldwide may represent attempts to actively shape development, changing brain morphology possibly to emphasise certain capacities, these would have involved use of things such as head binding, perhaps these changes in brain morphology produced accumulated epigenetic modifications allowing for after a few generations some of the skulls which appear to have unusually large cranial volumes. The Starchild appears to have a more balanced morphology, and increased neoteny (youthful qualities), and may have occurred as a result of internal modifications rather than external.

starbrain

Casts of inside of human skull (left) and starchild skull (right). The casts don’t display the degree of gyrification due to the presence of protective layers between brain and skull, dura, arachnoid, subarachnoid space and pia mater. Inner skull cast side view. Human left. Starchild right. The Starchild appears to have a more developed cortex (Elves get Int and Dex bonuses, yes I played Dungeons and Dragons).

Minds and Machines

 Brain regions. Frontal Lobe: Personality, concentration, planning problem solving, meaning, speech, smell, imagination. Parietal Lobe:touch, taste, proprioception, sensory combination and comprehension, imagination. Occipital Lobe: vision, imagination. Temporal lobe: hearing, facial recognition, emotion, memory, imagination. Cerebellum: balance, coordination, imagination.

The Starchild’s large cranial capacity is suggestive of an intense metabolism, as cephalisation (the relative enlargement of the head and the concentration of the nervous system within the head) in animals proceeds so does metabolic rate. The composition and quality of the Starchild’s bone also suggests an intense metabolism, relative to human bone it is thinner but apparently more durable, being woven through and strengthened by protein (collagen?) fibres, it’s increased carbon  content might result from an increased metabolism generating more carbon dioxide, allowing for a change and developmental advance in bone quality. Hypothyroidism (a decreased metabolism) is associated with increased fracture risk and weaker bones. Reptiles have more developed bones than amphibians and mammals still more so resulting not only from metabolic differences, but an increase in the complexity of the forces acting on the bones as a result of increasing nervous system development, mammals generally being more graceful than reptiles.

Cephalisation as an evolutionary trend in animals obviously goes along with increased self-awareness and reflective ability, simpler animals, fish, amphibians, and reptiles, appear to have relatively limited self-awareness, their awareness and energy is focused outwards on basic survival. If function produces structure, then cultivating internal sensitivity, reflective thought, and imagination should assist in developing those structures that support their function.

There are suggestions that conscious awareness can itself intensify metabolism meditators have lower lactate levels suggesting improved oxidative metabolism, denervation increases glycolysis and lactate production,  consciousness here appears like a self-intensifying process.

Clear links exist between mitochondrial energy status and gene expression, there are at least two processes involved in gene expression that are strongly influenced by metabolism acetylation and methylation. Histone acetylation is regulated by availability of acetyl CoA produced in mitochondria, generally acetylation activates and promotes genes and deacetylation represses them.

Methylation generally decreases expression of certain genes, various things that interfere with mitochondrial metabolism increase methylation for example hypoxia and BPA (Nahar et al. 2015). Methylation and hypermethylation of various genes (NADH dehydrogenase, cytochrome oxidase and PGC-1A) involved in promoting metabolism is involved in obesity and diabetes (Barres and Zierath 2011).

It was believed that methylation represented a relatively permanent modification, with demethylation limited to relatively passive processes occurring during DNA replication and embryogenesis, however active demethylation has been found to occur quite commonly. Active demethylation is dependent on the availability of metabolites of the citric acid (Krebs/TCA) cycle (Meng et al. 2014).

Respiratory energy production has increased as evolution has advanced allowing for increasing cephalisation and intelligence, if an organism with an intense metabolic rate suddenly found its metabolism  lowered all the biological structure dependent on that energy production would degrade including the consciousness, gene expression would change, methylation would increase.

If maintaining our current state is dependent on generating a certain level of energy production then perhaps cultivating a higher level of energy production will help to make possible an increase in developmental complexity. Increased rates of DNA synthesis and nucleotide substitution occur in organisms with higher metabolic rates (Martin and Palumbi 1993). An advance to neo-human perhaps even post-mammalian life may be a real possibility.

The story goes that when Bodhidharma arrived at the Shaolin temple he found monks who were too weak to meditate successfully, so he developed a series of postures and movements linked to the breath (these eventually developed into Shaolin kung fu) for the monks to practice to assist in their cultivation. These exercises would have cultivated type 1 muscle fibres and increased the monks PGC-1A expression increasing their vitality.
The monks could then meditate meaningfully, meditation has been found to increase the gyrification (the convolutions and surface area) of the cortex of the brain (Luders et al. 2012). This increase in cortical gyrification seems likely to involve increased expression of HAR1 and Reelin.
It seems somewhat unlikely to be coincidence that yogic practices just happen to involve the activity of two highly significant human accelerated regions.

References

Akhmerov RN, (1986), Qualitative difference in mitochondria of endothermic and ectothermic animals, FEBS Lett, 198(2), pp. 251-255.

Austin S, and St. Pierre J, (2012), PGC-1A and mitochondrial metabolism – emerging concepts and relevance in aging and neurodegenerative disorders, Journal of Cell Science, 125, pp. 4963-4971.

Barres R, and Ziereth JR, (2011), DNA methylation in metabolic disorders, Am J Clin Nutr, 93(4), pp. 897-900.

Beniaminov A, Westhof E, Krol A, (2008), Distinctive structures between a chimpanzee and a human in a brain noncoding RNA, RNA, 14, pp. 1270-1275.

Brand MD, (2000), Uncoupling to survive? The role of mitochondrial inefficiency in aging, Experimental Gerontology, 35, pp. 811-820.

Cairns J, and Foster PL, (1991), Adaptive reversion of a frameshift mutation in Escherichia coli, Genetics, 128(4), pp. 695-701.

Else PL, and Hulbert AJ, (1981), Comparison of the “reptile machine” and the “mammal machine”: Energy production, AJP-Regu Physiol, 240(1), pp. 3-9.

Engeli S, Birkenfeld AL, Badin P-M, Bourlier V, Louche K, Viguerie N, Thalamas C, Montastier E, Larrouy D, Harant I, de Glisezinski I, Lieske S, Reinke J, Beckmann B, Langin

D, Jordan J, Moro C, (2012), Natriuretic peptides enhance the oxidative capacity of human skeletal muscle, J Clin Invest, 122(12), pp. 4675-4679.

Golic I, Velickovic K, Markelic M, Stancic A, Jankovic A, Vucetic M, Otasevic V, Buzadzic B, Korac B, Korac A, (2014), Calcium induced alteration of mitochondrial morphology and mitochondrial-endoplasmic reticulum contact in rat brown adipocytes, Eur J Histochem, 58(3).

Iqbal S, Ostojic O, Singh K, Joseph AM, Hood DA, (2013), Expression of mitochondrial fission and fusion regulatory proteins in skeletal muscle during chronic use and disuse, Muscle Nerve, 48(6), pp. 963-970.

Lehmann G, Segal E, Muradian KK, Fraifeld VE, (2008), Do mitochondrial DNA and metabolic rate complement each other in determination of the mammalian maximum longevity, Rejuvenation Research, 11(2), pp. 409-417.

Lin J, Wu H, Tarr PT, Zhang C, Wu Z, Boss O, Michael LF, Puigserver P, Isotani E, Olson EN,

Lowell BB, Bassel-Duby R, Spiegelman BM, (2002), Transcriptional co-activator PGC-1A drives the formation of slow twitch muscle fibres, Nature, 418, pp.797-801.

Luders E, Kurth F, Mayer EA, Toga AW, Narr KL, Gaser C, (2012), The unique brain anatomy of meditation practitioners: alterations in cortical gyrification, Frontiers in Neuroscience, 6(34).

Maragos WF, and Korde AS, (2004), Mitochondrial uncoupling as a potential therapeutic target in acute central nervous system injury, Journal of Neurochemistry, 91(2), pp.257-262.

Martin AP, and Palumbi SR, (1993), Body size, metabolic rate, generation time, and the molecular clock, PNAS, 90(9), pp. 4087-4091.

McClintock B, (1983), The Significance of Responses of the Genome to Challenge, Nobel Lecture.

Meng H, Chen G, Gao H-M, Song X, Shi Y, Cao L, (2014), The emerging nexus of active DNA methylation and mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in post mitotic neurons, Int J Mol Sci, 15(12), pp. 22604-22625.

Molnar Z, Metin C, Stoykova A, Tarabykin V, Price DJ, Francis F, Meyer G, Dehay C,

Kennedy H, (2006), Comparative aspects of cerebral cortical development, EJN, 23(4), pp. 921-934.

Nahar MS, Liao C, Kannan K, Harris C, Dolinoy DC, (2015), In utero bisphenol A concentration, metabolism, and global DNA methylation across matched placenta liver and kidney in the human fetus, Chemosphere, 124, pp. 54-60.

Pollard KS, Salama SR, King B, Kern AD, Dreszer T, Katzman S, Siepel A, Pedersen JS, Bejerano G, Baertsch R, Rosenbloom KR, Kent J, Haussler D, (2006), Forces shaping the fastest evolving regions in the human genome, PLoS.Genet, 2(10).

Pollard KS, Salama SR, Lambert N, Lambot M-A, Coppens S, Pedersen JS, Katzman S, King B,  Onodera C,  Siepel A, Kern AD, Dehay C, Igel H, Ares M, Vanderhaegen P,  Haussler D, (2006), An RNA gene expressed during cortical development evolved rapidly in humans, Nature, 443, pp. 167-172.

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Rogers JT, Rusiana I, Trotter J, Zhao L, Donaldson E, Pak DT, Babus LW, Peters M, Bank JL, Chavis P, Rebeck GW, Hoe HS, Weeber EJ, (2011), Reelin supplementation enhances cognitive ability, synaptic plasticity, and dendritic spine density, Learn Mem, 18(9), pp. 558-564.

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Astral Aspiration: aromorphic evolution, a third perspective on the Starchild Skull

“Every man and every woman is a star.”

-Aleister Crowley

“The infant represents our evolutionary future.”

-Ray Peat

Aromorphosis: a morphological process of metabolic intensification,  whereby living organisms become increasingly complex over the span of evolution.

“Introduced by A. N. Severtsov, “who used the word “aromorphosis” to refer to the most general adaptive changes in organization and functions. Aromorphosis is usually accompanied by an increase in the intensity of the life processes of animals and in the variety of their manifestations (differentiation). These changes are useful and essential when the habitats of the organisms change while the organisms remain stable. Aromorphosis enables qualitative jumps that raise the level of organization of a species and enable it to adapt to life under new conditions, thus helping to enlarge its range.”

…  “As an example of aromorphosis in the evolution of higher vertebrates Severtsov cites the qualitative jump in the transition from reptilian ancestors to mammals. The four-chambered heart, the alveolar structure of the lungs, diaphragmatic breathing, and other factors raised the level of metabolism in mammals and increased their ability to adapt to changes in living conditions. Bearing young in the mother’s uterus and feeding them milk extended their chances of survival.”

-from the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979).

The Starchild skull is an unusual skull  that was found in Mexico somewhere in the region of Chihuaha around the Copper Canyon area.

starchild_skull_1

The Starchild Skull

Most of the debate around the skull has been around whether or not it is an alien / alien-human hybrid or just a deformed human skull, however a third possibility may exist.

The skull is extraordinary, truly remarkable, and the position of individuals such as Lloyd Pye who made the skull famous, that the skull must be at least partially extraterrestrial is understandable, a position that seems more reasonable than the standard sceptic’s reponse of it’s just hydrocephalic and /or progerioid.

More detailed information on the unusual features of the skull can be found at:

The Starchild project

The unusual features of the skull:

elves

The Starchild Skull: Alien or Elfin?

The volume of the interior of the skull is 1,600 cubic cm, 200cm3 larger than the average adult’s and 400cm3 larger than an adult of equivalent size.

starchild-skull-2

Left: Starchild (with reconstructed lower face). Right: Adult human

The orbits of the eyes are oval and unusually shallow.

It appears the skull would have had relatively small cheek bones and small muscles for chewing food as these muscles pass through the zygomatic arches.

The skull lacks frontal sinuses.

The bone is unusually thin, but also appears to be highly durable, exceptionally hard, Lloyd Pye has claimed that the bone was incredibly difficult to cut through and is woven through by odd fibres, yet to be identified.

A mineral analysis of the bone shows significant differences to typical human bone, most notably containing an unusually high amount of carbon and oxygen (carbon dioxide?).

star-elements

Elemental Analysis

Genetic material recovered from the skull appears unusual, mitochondrial DNA from the starchild skull differs from human, generally the maximum number of mtDNA variations between humans is 120. The Starchild Skull has between 800-1,000 differences.

Nuclear DNA, some of the starchild’s nuclear DNA may be different from anything previously found on earth, including a fragment several thousand nucleotides long that could not be matched to any recorded DNA.

The Starchild’s FoxP2 gene also appears significantly different from human, this is a gene which appears to be involved in a number of processes in the body, including speech, oro-facial development as well as being involved in the development of the alveoli of the lungs, a large brain like the Starchild’s would require an efficient respiratory system.

Early tests appeared to show that standard X and Y chromosomes were present, suggesting that the child was a human male or at least had human parents. Mitochondrial DNA also appeared to belong to haplogroup C (a Native American group).

I don’t think the possibly significant genetic differences require extra-terrestrials to explain, given the evidence for non-random directed genetic mutation, it seems possible that a biology that is liquid crystalline and energetically coherent across multiple domains would allow for sudden meaningful and significant adaptive evolutionary jumps especially when conscious organismic intelligence is recognised as fundamental to and inseparable from biology. Organismic bioenergetic coherence would allow for seemingly vast evolutionary jumps with the new organism differing significantly and meaningfully at the genetic level from the parent organism.

The early results also strongly suggest the skull at least has a connection to earth humans.

What I would like to suggest is that the skull is neither deformed nor alien, instead it may be neo/meta-human, an evolutionary stride forwards.

star-recon

Artists impression of Starchild in life: Tommy Allison

So why do I think this might be the case? Well the skull and some of the reconstructions based on it appear remarkably neotenous, that is it preserves very youthful features, large brain size, large, eyes, relatively small face in comparison to the head size, for more on neoteny as an evolutionary tendency see:

Chapter 4 of Ray Peat’s Generative Energy

chimps

Left:infant chimp. Right: adult chimp.

 

 

 

I think the mineral analysis is interesting, if carbon dioxide is as biologically significant as I suspect, acting in some sense as a sort of electrical doping agent increasing the conductivity of proteins, it might be expected that a more evolved and energetic organism might show signs of exposure to higher levels of carbon dioxide.

For more on CO2 see: Ray Peat’s articles

I think some of the unusual qualities of the bone might be explainable by increased trophic activity of the nerves, resulting in a more qualitatively developed bone as a result of increased quality of innervation, denervation of bone results in osteoporotic bone, so it does not seem unreasonable that increased nerve energy might result in a developmental advance in bone quality.

hydroceph

Hydrocephalic skull

I’m not convinced by the explanation that the skull is of cradleboarded hydrocephalic infant, or a child with progeria, the morphology of the skull while unusual appears coherent and the unusual qualities of the bone, if Lloyd Pye has reported them accurately, seem incompatible with either hydrocephalus or progeria. In progeria bones show hypoplasia and dysplasia, yet the starchild bone is reported to be super-humanly tough.

I don’t think it’s necessary to bring extra-terrestrials into the picture to explain the starchild skull, other factors that might be involved include the altitude, leading to increased carbon dioxide retention on the part of both the child and mother, possible yogic / meditative / spiritual practice on the part of the mother resulting in an optimized uterine environment for the developing organism.

If the skull is 900 years old this would place it within the Medieval warm period which lasted from AD 950 – 1250, in Europe this was a period of abundant food as result of the warmer climate and milder winters, as has been pointed out by others including Randall Carlson, this abundance of food and more hospitable climate may have contributed to developments in art and culture that resulted in Gothic architecture, it is possible that these more nurturing conditions allowed for the aromorphic evolution seen in the Starchild skull. Other various and unknown reasons might also be involved, likely requiring a highly permissive environment free from the usual distorting cultural stressors a developing child would encounter, allowing for the child to devote its conscious energies to the realization and expansion of its developmental potentials, allowing for autopoietic evolution.

The suggestion that the starchild’s differences are a result of an autopoietic evolution might seem strange even impossible, but only if you believe in a mechanical model of evolutionary change that depends on random mutations selected out by a blind mechanism “red in tooth and claw”, if it is recognized that evolution is a living organic participatory process that intimately involves conscious intelligence, then the suggestion that the starchild skull might be the result of a conscious organic probing into a new potential biopsychic state seems natural, and if this sort of evolution is possible for one then it must be possible for others.